Latent classes and longitudinal patterns of material hardship as predictors of child well-being

Publication Year



This study examined the associations of multifaceted material hardship measured cross-sectionally and longitudinally with children's well-being in the United States. Results from linear regression and child fixed effects models indicated that more intense material hardship had consistent, detrimental associations with child health status and internalizing and externalizing behaviours. More intense longitudinal patterns of material hardship were consistently associated with behaviours only. These findings examine new, multifaceted measures of material hardship and suggest associations between child well-being, particularly behaviour challenges, and exposure both to multiple forms of material hardship and to more intense long-term patterns of hardship.

Publication Status
In Press
Children and Society